Psittacobrosus bechsteini: a new extinct chewing louse (Insecta, Phthiraptera, Amblycera) off the Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor (Psittaciiformes), with an annotated review of fossil and recently extinct animal lice

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2005
Authors:E. Mey
Journal:Anzeiger des Vereins Thüringer Ornithologen
Pagination:201 - 217
Date Published:2005
Keywords:Ara, bechsteini, Cuba, extinct, fossil, historical, mtax, new species, Phthiraptera, Psittacobrosus, sp. n., tricolor

A description is given of Psittacobrosus bechsteini n. sp. (Menoponidae sensu lato) from a female individual removed from a skin of the Cuban Macaw Ara tricolor, a Cuban endemic extinct since the 19th century. This find provided an opportunity to recall the relationship between ornithology and parasitology established by JOHANN MATTHÄUS BECHSTEIN (1757-1822) at the end of the 18th century. With regard to the listing of (4) scientific animal names created in honour of J. M. BECHSTEIN, it is argued here why the name of the small lepidopteran (Bucculatricidae) »Bucculatrix bechsteinella (BECHSTEIN & SCHARFENBERG, 1805) should be revised as Bucculatrix bechsteinella (SCHARFENBERG in BECHSTEIN & SCHARFENBERG, 1805). An annotated list identifies the animal louse species regarded as definitely or probably extinct up to the present day, as well as their hosts. It has been claimed that six fossil finds that are dealt with here are all animal lice. In actual fact, this applies to the following three records only: 1. Imagines of † Neohaematopinus relictus DUBININ, 1948 (Anoplura, Polyplacidae) ex † Spermolegus (Urocitellus) glacialis (VINOGRADOV) (Rodentia, Sciuridae), Pleistocene (ca. 10 000 years old), Yakutskaya. 2. Several eggs of an unknown animal louse (Anoplura ?) on hairs probably from a sciurid-like rodent (Rodentia), Baltic amber, Eocene (ca. 40 million years old), Germany. 3. An imago of † Megamenopon rasnitsyni WAPPLER, SMITH & DALGLEISH, 2003 (Amblycera, Menoponidae sensu lato) perhaps from a procellariiform, charadriiform or anseriform bird, Eocene (40 million years old), Germany. The Cretaceous Saurodectes vrsanskyi RASNITSYN & ZHERIKHIN, 1999, a presumed ectoparasite on hair-covered pterosaurs, did not belong to the Phthiraptera but to another insect order. Recent (probably) extinct animal lice from mammals are apparently as yet unknown, but in contrast, apart from † Psittacobrosus bechsteini n. sp., the following 11 speciesare known that once parasitized birds. In order of their first description they are: 1. † Acutifrons caracarensis (KELLOGG & MANN, 1912) (Ischnocera, Philopteridae s. l.) ex † Caracara lutosa (RIDGWAY) (Falconidae), Guadelupe Island (Mexico). 2. Longimenopon dominicanum (KELLOGG & MANN, 1912) (Amblycera, Menoponidae s. l.) ex Oceanodroma macrodactyla W. E. BRYANT (Hydrobatidae), Guadalupe Island. 3. Columbicola extinctus MALCOMSON, 1937 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae s. l.) ex † Ectopistes migratorius (L.) (Columbidae), North America. 4. Rallicola piageti CLAY, 1953 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae s. l.) ex Gallirallus lafresnayanus VERREAUX & DES MURS (Rallidae), New Caledonia. 5. Halipeurus (Anamias) raphanus TIMMERMANN, 1961 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae s. l.) ex Oceanodroma macrodactyla W. E. BRYANT (Hydrobatidae), Guadalupe Island. 6. Puffinoecus jamaicensis (TIMMERMANN, 1962) (Ischnocera, Philopteridae s.l.) ex Pterodroma caribbaea CARTE (Procellariidae), Jamaica. 7. † Campanulotes defectus TENDEIRO, 1969 (Ischnocera, Goniodidae) ex † Ectopistes migratorius (L.) (Columbidae), North America. 8. Nitzschiella hemiphagae TENDEIRO, 1972 (Ischnocera, Goniodidae) ex † Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea (LATHAM) (Columbidae), Norfolk Island (New Zealand). 9. † Patellinirmus restinctus TENDEIRO, 1972 (Ischnocera, Goniodidae) ex † Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea (LATHAM) (Columbidae), Norfolk Island. 10. † Huiacola extinctus MEY, 1990 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae s.l.) ex † Heteralocha acutirostris (GOULD) (Callaeatidae), New Zealand (North Island). 11. Philopteroides xenicus MEY, 2004 (Ischnocera, Philopteridae s. l.) ex † Xenicus l. longipes (J. F. GMELIN) (Acanthisittidae), New Zealand. Further unnamed forms await their description, or their discovery on hosts that have become extinct during the last 400 years. Historical animal louse records are known from: 1. Trimenopon hispidum (BURMEISTER, 1838) (Amblycera, Trimenoponidae), 2. Gliricola porcelli (SCHRANK, 1781) (Amblycera, Gliricolidae), both ex Cavia porcellus f. dom. (Rodentia, Caviidae), Peru, 1100 years old. 3. Pediculus capitis DE GEER, 1778 (Anoplura, Pediculidae) ex Homo s. sapiens (Primates, Hominidae) ca. 1400-10000 years old, South America, New Zealand, Africa, Asia, and Europe. 4. Pediculus humanus L., 1758 (Anoplura, Pediculidae) ex Homo s. sapiens (Primates, Hominidae), ca. 1300-2000 years old, Egypt, North and South America. 5. Pthirus pubis (L., 1758) (Anoplura, Pthiridae) ex Homo s. sapiens (Primates, Hominidae), ca. 1000-2000 years old, Europe, Chile and Peru. 6. Microthoracius sp. (Anoplura, Microthoraciidae) ex Lama glama f. dom. (L., 1758) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae), ca. 1000 years old, Peru.

Taxonomic name: 
Menoponidae (Lice), Philopteridae (Lice), Trimenoponidae (Lice), Gliricola (Lice), Longimenopon (Lice), Psittacobrosus (Lice), Acutifrons (Lice), Campanulotes (Lice), Columbicola (Lice), Halipeurus (Lice), Rallicola (Lice), Trimenopon (Lice), Longimenopon dominicanum (Lice), Acutifrons caracarensis (Lice), Columbicola extinctus (Lice), Trimenopon hispidum (Lice), Huiacola (Lice), Puffinoecus (Lice), Patellinirmus (Lice), Nitzschiella (Lice), Anamias (Lice), Campanulotes defectus (Lice), Anoplura (Lice), Microthoraciidae (Lice), Pediculidae (Lice), Polyplacidae (Lice), Pthiridae (Lice), Microthoracius (Lice), Pediculus (Lice), Neohaematopinus (Lice), Pthirus (Lice), Pediculus humanus (Lice), Pediculus capitis (Lice), Neohaematopinus relictus (Lice), Pthirus pubis (Lice), Insecta (Lice), Phthiraptera (Lice), Amblycera (Lice), Ischnocera (Lice), Columbidae (Avian), Falconidae (Avian), Rallidae (Avian), Hydrobatidae (Avian), Procellariidae (Avian), Ectopistes (Avian), Hemiphaga (Avian), Gallirallus (Avian), Heteralocha (Avian), Oceanodroma (Avian), Pterodroma (Avian), Ectopistes migratorius (Avian), Ectopistes migratorius (Avian), Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea (Avian), Heteralocha acutirostris (Avian), Oceanodroma macrodactyla (Avian), Pterodroma caribbaea (Avian), Artiodactyla (Mammal (Price et al)), Primates (Mammal (Price et al)), Rodentia (Mammal (Price et al)), Camelidae (Mammal (Price et al)), Caviidae (Mammal (Price et al)), Lama (Mammal (Price et al)), Cavia (Mammal (Price et al)), Lama glama (Mammal (Price et al)), Cavia porcellus (Mammal (Price et al)), Cavia porcellus (Mammal (Price et al)), Mammals (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Artiodactyla (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Primates (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Rodentia (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Camelidae (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Caviidae (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Hominidae (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Sciuridae (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Lama (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Homo (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Lama glama (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Cavia (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder)), Cavia porcellus (Mammal (Wilson & Reeder))
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Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith