Study on Prevalence of Ectoparasites of Poultry in and Around Jimma Town

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2017
Authors:A. Kebede_Tsegay, Abebe, B., Zewdie, T.
Journal:European Journal of Biological Sciences
Pagination:18 - 26
Keywords:Backyard, chicken, ectoparasites, Intensive, Prevalence

n Ethiopia, poultry production plays an important role in the socioeconomic develop of the country. Majority of Ethiopian chicken are maintained under traditional management systems contributing to 98.5% of national egg and 99.2% of chicken meat production. However, chicken production in Ethiopia is adversely affected by a variety of constraints. Among the constraints, external parasitism ranks top in village chicken production. To get data concerning this, a cross sectional study was conducted in and around Jimma town with the objectives of indentifying the species composition of ectoparasites circulating in the area and assessing their prevalence and associated risk factors. To achieve these objectives; 384 chicken were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Samples of ectoparasites were collected from different parts of the body including skin scraping from shanks and identified to species level under stereomicroscope. Concomitantly ages, sexes as well as other risk factors were recorded. The result of this study showed that three chicken ectoparasites (lice, flea and mite) were found to be prevailing in both the intensive and back yard production systems. Four species of lice; Lipeurus caponis, Menopon gallinae, Menacanthus stramineus and Cuclotogaster heterographus and two species of mite: Knemidocoptes mutans, Dermanyssus gallinae and one species of flea Echidnophaga gallinacean were identified. In current study, an overall prevalence of lice (42.71%), flea (16.15%) and mite (8.85%) irrespective of management differences was recorded. However, the prevalence in extensive (backyard) production system was found to be: 26.03% of lice, 8.85% of flea and 2.34% of mite while in intensive production system was: 16.67% of lice, 7.29% of flea and 6.51% of mite. The difference in prevalence rate of ectoparasites in adult chicken (49.48%) was higher than young grower (17.97%); higher in female (41.4%) than that of the male (28.08%); higher in local (41.4%) breed than exotic (28.64%) breed and higher in extensive management system (42.44%) than intensive (26.04%) managements. The finding in age group showed that there was a statistically significant differences in prevalence of ectoparasites between young grower and adult chicken (P<0.05). However, there was no statistical significant difference between male and female chicken (P>0.05). Generally, the study indicated that ectoparasites are highly prevalent in both backyard and intensive poultry production systems and in both local and exotic breed. This might be associated with lack of due attention with respect to hygienic system, treatment and control practices. Therefore, integrating ectoparasite control strategies and awareness creation to the community concerning the effect of ectoparasites on poultry production are recommended.

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