Candida and parasitic infection: Helminths, trichomoniasis, lice, scabies, and malaria

Publication Type:Book Chapter
Year of Publication:2021
Authors:J. M. Piper
Editor:H. N. Winn, Chervenak, F. A., Romero, R.
Book Title:Clinical Maternal-Fetal Medicine
Edition:2nd Edition
Pagination:87.1 to 87.18
Publisher:CRC Press
ISBN:Online 9781003222590

Yeast infection is an important issue in women’s health, even though systemic fungal infection is exceedingly rare in women of childbearing age. The presence of Candida organisms is almost universal. The species breakdown in vulvovaginal specimens differs in that C. albicans is identified in 80% to 85% of all positive vaginal cultures, C. glabrata in 10% to 15%, and C. tropicalis in 5%, with minimum identification of other species. Candida are dimorphic organisms with blastospore and mycelial forms. The blastospore form (budding yeast) is associated with transmission and colonization, and is the form found in the bloodstream in systemic infection. Germinated yeast with mycelia and pseudohyphae is the tissue-invasive form that causes symptomatic disease. The human host defense mechanism against candidal vaginitis is primarily based on the natural bacterial flora of the vagina, particularly lactobacilli. Factors that predispose a patient to Candida vulvovaginitis can be categorized as systemic, localized, or exogenous.

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